Durer Prayer Book | Illuminated Manuscripts for sale | Les Enluminures

31

Description

A hybrid manuscript that includes a complete set of sixteen engravings comprising Albrecht Dürer’s Engraved Passion

This Prayer Book in the form of a hybrid manuscript includes a complete set of sixteen engravings comprising Albrecht Dürer’s Engraved Passion with an additional engraving as prologue – Dürer’s Virgin and Child Seated by a Tree (1513) – all attentively hand colored and heightened with gold and silver. It can now be added to a small number of manuscript Prayer Books (9 are recorded) with hand-colored Dürer prints made in Nuremberg and Augsburg in the late 16th century (5 of the 9 include Durer prints).  The present volume is most closely related to volumes signed by Hieronymus Oertel between 1590 and 1605.  A related volume, now dispersed, includes Dürer engravings colored and signed by Georg Mack the Elder (active in Nuremberg c. 1556-1601). Several of these volumes have courtly provenance, including the insignia of the German prince electors.  This Prayer Book belonged to the noted English antiquarian Evelyn Philip Shirley (1812-1882), who probably had the volume re-bound around the middle of the 19th century or before.

Description

i (paper) + iii (parchment) + 26 folios + ii (parchment) + i (paper) on parchment interleaved with tissue now almost entirely missing (collation: i-iv4, v2, vi-vii4), written in a single “German Fractur” hand on up to 29 lines, in dark brown ink, rubrics in red, with gold and silver highlights, paginated with Arabic numerals in upper margin, with 17 engravings on paper illuminated with transparent washes and body color, heightened with gold and silver, mounted to parchment, the text and engravings framed with gilt red paper micro-borders throughout pasted to the sheets and outlined in purple ink, leaves thumbed from use, staining to parchment and fly leaves, some pigment transfer across pages, worming in lower corners pp. 13-16, cockling from damp p. 35, some sections of pasted-in paper borders lost on pp. 1-4, 17, 19, 33, 35, 45, rubbing and creasing to the engravings on pp. 2, 4, 16, abrasions to engravings on pp. 16, 30, and 34. Bound in early 19th-century(?) diced brown morocco, gilt boards front and back with a small central panel with gilt flowers set inside a larger panel with gilt roll-tool friezes, with Herrnhut-style Prussian blue combed paste paper inside front and back boards. Dimensions 177 x 120 mm.

Provenance

1. Seventeen prints by Albrecht Dürer, the first on p. 2 (Virgin and Child Seated by a Tree) with sixteen prints from Dürer’s Engraved Passion on even-numbered (or verso) sides of pp. 4-34, engraved and published between 1507 and 1513 in Nuremberg. The sixteen plates of the Engraved Passion were begun after Dürer returned from the second of his well-documented trips to Venice. Panofsky hailed the “aristocratic slenderness of proportion” of the plates and describes the series as a “collector’s item to be relished by the art lover.” Vasari called the Engraved Passion “the ultimate in perfection and quality attainable in the medium as regards beauty, variety of vestments, and composition” (Lives of the Artists, 1568). Single prints exist in collections today, however, a number of complete sets survive, suggesting they were collected as sets, even if they were not bound together in the form of a book or album. One such set, later hand colored by Hans Mack, is now in the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin (inv. WEP 112-127, signed and dated HM 1585; see Dackerman, pp. 197-199).

In a second stage of production, probably also in Nuremberg, the prints were gathered together, pasted onto parchment sheets with hand-written prayers, and surrounded by pasted-in borders. The manuscript pairs each plate with prayers on Christ’s birth, Passion, and Resurrection, and the title page directly attributes the engravings to Dürer. The content of the prayers suggest that the manuscript was intended for a Protestant owner. The phenomenon of hybrid manuscripts containing colored engravings has been attributed to the “Dürer Renaissance” of the later 16th century, discussed by Hans Georg Gmelin, who first drew attention to a dispersed set of leaves colored by Georg Mack in 1588 (p. 186, fig. 4). A recent publication allows us to place the present manuscript within the oeuvre of Hieronymus Oertel of Augsburg (active 1580 to 1614) and to relate it closely to two works by Oertel, one of which is signed.

2. Bookplate of Evelyn Philip Shirley (1812-1882), Ettington Hall, Warwickshire, with motto “Malgré la Envie,” pasted inside front board with inscription "Nr. 4," and with signature in Latin on parchment flyleaf “Evelinus Philippus, de Shirley, de Eatington, Don;” sold Sotheby’s, London, 28 April 1947, lot 286 (clipping from auction catalogue pasted to fly leaf).

3. Beatriz (signature and dedication in Spanish written in pencil on parchment fly leaf), Christmas, 1947, Buenos Aires.

4. Collection of Alberto Marenco di Moriondo, Chicago, Illinois.

Text

Title page, “Passio unsers Herren Jesu Christi ausz den vier Evangelisten geszogenn. Mit Schönen Kunstreichen figuren geszieret Albrecht Dürer. Auch mit Christlichen unnd schönen andechtigen gebetten einem jede(n) Christen seer nuszlich zülösen.”

This title page directly attributes the engravings to Albrecht Dürer (“Adorned with beautiful, skillful figures [by] Albrecht Dürer”).

pp. 3-35 Seventeen prayers on Christ’s birth, Passion, and Resurrection (on odd-numbered pages); p. 3, rubric, “Von der Leiblichen Geburt Christi,” incipit, “O du süesser Jesu von wölchem der prophet Isaias geweis taget hat uns ist ein kind geboren ain…;” p. 5, rubric, “Christus better am Olberg und schwiszet klutigen schwäisz,” incipit, “O Jesu warer Gott unnd Mensch der du aller welt Lastsünde auff dich geladen dieselbige zu büssen unnd mit leide(n) zu beszalen, darfür du nach deiner  Mensch hait betrübt, deinen Vatter gebetten…; p. 7, rubric, “Christus wird verzathen gefangen und gebunden,” incipit, “Christe warer Gott unnd Mensch der du dich hast zassen verzathen, fahe unnd binden umb unser Sünde willen…;” p. 9, rubric, “Christus wird gefüert für Caiphas, der dasselbig jar Hoher Priester war,” incipit, “O Christe Du Lamb Gottes voller unschuld unnd heiligkeit, der du nicht allain mit falschen zeügnisz…;” p. 11, rubric, “Christus wirdt dem Landt Pflöger Pilato Uberantwortet,” incipit, “HERR Jesu Christe der du frue zur metten zeitt von deinem Volck den Obersten der Juden in versambletem…;” p. 13, rubric, “Christus würdt Segeis Tlet,” incipit, “HERR Jesu Christe der du bist bist umb unser missethat willen verwundet, und umb unser Sünde will zerschlagen worden, fur alle deine Marter unnd Pein sag ich dir von herszen danck das du mich durch deine…,” p. 15, rubric, “Christus wirdt mit Dörneren gekrönet,” incipit, “HERR Christe Ewiger Son Gottes, der du zu hon und spot bist mit ainem Purpur Mantel angeszogen, unnd mit Stachelten Dörneren gekrönet, daszue auch mit ainem Rorsteken geschlagenn…;” p. 17, rubric, “Christus wirdt den Juden Zusehen dargestöllet,” incipit, “O Gütiger Herr Jesu Christe, der du von Pilato den Juden bist dargestölt worden zu sehen wie dein heiliger Leib mit Geiszlen unbarmhertzigklich ist zerschmiszen worden, das derselbig voller Bluetfliessender wunden…; p. 19, rubric, “Pilatus weschet seine Hende uber Jesum,” incipit, “HERR Jesu Christe, du aller heiligster unter den menschen kinderen, deine unschuld ist so offenbar worden, das auch Pilatus der Heid dieselbige mit seinem händwaschen offendtlich beszeüget…;” p. 21, rubric, “Jesus wird auszgefüeret unnd tregt sein Creütz,” incipit, “HERR Jesu Christe der du dein Creütz auff deinem Rucken getragen hast unnd warest der aller verachtest und unwerdest voller schmerszen und kranckheit Furwar du trugest unsere kranckheit…;” p. 23, rubric, “Jesus Stirbt am Creutz,” incipit, “O Jesu von Natzareth ein König der Júden und Heilandt aller Welt, der du am Stammen des Heiligen Creützes bist erhöhet worden wie die Eherene Schlangen in der wüesten auff das alle die an dich glauben, nit verloren…;” p. 25, rubric, “Christi Leichnam wirdt vom Creütz abgenommen,” incipit, “ HERR Jesu Christe des Allmechtigen Gottes Son unser Ewiger hoher Priester der du hast deinen unbeflökten Leib am hohen Altar des Creützes auffgeovffert unnd bist am…;” p. 27, rubric, “Christi Leichnam wirdt Begraben,” incipit,” HERR Jesu Christe warer Gott und mench, In deinem Todt ist deiner liebe(n) mutter Marie der h. Jungkfrawen, ein Schwert durch Ire Seel gedrungen…;” p. 29, rubric, “Die Hollenfart Christi,” incipit, “HERR Christe du Ewiger Son Gottes der du zur höllen bist gefaren daselbs den Todten das Evangelium ein fröliche Bodtschafft zu verkindigen, unnd die Altväster so auff dich gehofft haben…;” p. 31, rubric, “Die Auffersteung Christi,” incipit, “HERR Jesu Christe du rechter Sig furst und uberwinder des Todes, der du am dritten tag von Todten aufferstand en unnd solches den Andechtigen…;” p. 33, rubric, “Zachrias am .13. Capitl zu der zeit wird das haus David unnd die Burger zu Jerusalem einen freien offnen Brunnen haben wider alle ungerechtigkeit,” incipit, “Jesu du Brunquell des Lebens, des Bluet uns rain macht von allen unseren Sünden, von wölchem Brúnquell der Prophet Zacharias hat geweissaget Cap. 13. Zu der szeit wird das haus David unnd die Burger…;” p. 35, rubric, “Marci .16. Die Zaichen aber die da volgen warden denen die da glauben find die in meinem namen warden sü teüffl ausztreiben, Mit newen zungen redenn Schlangen…,” incipit, “HERR Jesu Christe der du zur Rechten Gottes sitzst, und den Menschen gaben gibst, und der du deinen Jungeren Marci .16. ja die gantzen Welt mit dise(m) Beuelch abgeförtigt hast, nicht allain das Evangelium zu…;”

A sequence of seventeen prayers on Christ’s birth, Passion, and Resurrection. Each is paired with a plate from Dürer’s Engraved Passion (see below). Although not word for word, these prayers are close to the text of a hybrid manuscript also with colored prints from Dürer’s Engraved Passion probably also written and assembled by Oertel and now in a private collection (formerly Les Enluminures, IIM-76117). Both Prayer Books have identical red and gold borders pasted around the engravings. The first prayer (p. 3) is a thanksgiving for God’s fulfillment of his promise to send his own son to save mankind, addressed to its companion image of the Virgin and Child Seated by a Tree. The following prayers are similarly addressed to their companion images, which follow the sequence of Christ’s prayer at Gethsemane to Christ’s resurrection. The final image shows the apostle Peter healing a lame man (Acts 3:1-10) with a prayer beginning with the statement that Christ gave his apostles not just the commandment to preach the Gospel but also to strengthen Christian belief in the hearts of mankind through miracles: “wie Petrus hie einen armen krippl gesund machet” (just as Peter here heals a poor cripple). The source of these and the following prayers is not known, but this direct reference in the final prayer to the facing image indicates that the texts were adapted for deployment in this kind of Prayer Book.

pp. 36-37, Prayer on the Heart of Christ; rubric, “Ein Schön Gebet Zue unserin Herznit Jesu Christo, Darinn sein gantzes leide(n) unnd Leben begriffen, ist gar ain Shone anrueffung,” incipit, “O du mein aller liebster schatz herz Jesu Christe meiner strinen Seele trost, du Spiegl on mackel der Gottlichen maiestat, wie sol lich Loben deinen heiligen Namen darnach Ich genennet bin…;”

pp. 37-48, Six Prayers to Our Father, with rubric “Vatter Unser” preceding each prayer; p. 37, incipit, “O Lieber Herr Jesu Christe ich rueffe dich an unnd deine(m) heiligen namen dein unautz sprechliche liebe die du hast zue unns Armen Menschen. Ich bitte dich Barnibhertzigez GOTT du wöllest mich anschen in der…,” ending p. 39, “…dein grosse armuet dein strenges leben nicht an mir verlore(n) werden;” p. 39, incipit, “O mein Seele erkenne dich /[p. 40] O mein hertz erhobe dich O alle meine Sünde seit…,” ending p. 41, “…alles was mir Leib unnd Sele ängstlichen macht;” p. 41, incipit, “Jen Ermane dich auch deiner ellenden Gefencknitz des fallchenn…,” ending p. 43, “…Lieber die ewige Krone in dem Himelreich;” p. 43, incipit, “O Lieber Herz Jesu Christe nun gedencke ich wie du gestanden bist vor Pilato mit gebunden henden…,” ending same page, “…wirst söllen uber die verdambten;” p. 44, incipit, “Ich Ermane dich des traivrigen ganges ausz der Statt Jerusalem, unnd desz Schiverenn Creützes, das du auff dir truegest…,” ending p. 45, “…mir zue hilff an meinenletzten zeitten;” p. 45, incipit, “O Mein aller Liebster HERR mein Barmbhertziger Gott lasz dein heiliges leiden an mir mit verloren werden…,” ending p. 49, “…durch das höchste guet das du selbs bist mein HERR Jesu Christe AMEN;”

pp. 49-52, Short Prayers and Thanksgiving for Christ’s Passion, concluding with a four-line poem or motto; rubric, “Ein Ander kurtz Gebet unnd dancksagung dem Leiden Christi Sprich,” incipit, “WIR Marter unnd das Leide(n) Jesu Christi meines herz un und Gottes sei mi rain Süesser eingang in alle Zugendt ein sterck wider…,” ending p. 51, “…Ewigklich hoffe unnd Bevilche mich seiner Barmbherzigkeit AMEN,” p. 51, incipit, “HERR mein Gott durch deiner grossen bitterkait willen die du gelitten hast am Stammen…;” p. 51, incipit, “O Heilig macher der Welt mache mich heilwirdig, der du durch dein Creütz unnd kostbarliches Bluet die Welt erlöst hast…;” p. 52, incipit, “O All mechtiger HERR in die hende deiner unausz sprechliche(r) barmbhertzigkeit, bevilhe ich mein Seel, mein Leib, mein Sinne…,” ending, “zu der Ewigen Freünd und Seligkeit;” concluding with a four-line poem or motto, p. 52, “Gottes Wort lasz dir Lieb sein, Was Gott gibt das schleiisz darei(n), Sag Im Lob Preisz unnd Eher, So gibt er alle Tag mher.”

The concluding four-line poem or motto beginning “Gottes Wort laß dir lieb sein” can be compared to an inscription found inside the lid of a small silver-gilt jewelry box made around 1580 by the Nuremberg goldsmith and printmaker Hans Jamnitzer (1538/39-1603) now in the collections of the Landesmuseum Württemberg (inv. KK hellblau 55). Although there is no evidence for a connection between Jamnitzer and the present Prayer Book (and none is proposed here), Jamnitzer was in the orbit of Dürer’s family and provided works to Nuremberg collectors like Paulus Praun (Bubenik 2013, p. 50). The repetition of this four-line poem or motto in both instances at the very least sheds some light on the Protestant Nuremberg milieu in which our Prayer Book was made.

Illustration

(dimensions given to the inside edge of the applied paper borders)

p. 2, Virgin and Child Seated by a Tree, 1513 (cf. Meder 34c; Hollstein VII.30.34; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 67), 118 x 73 mm.;

p. 4, Christ on the Mount of Olives, 1508 (cf. Meder 71.4c; Hollstein VII.8.4; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 46b), 115 x 71 mm.;

p. 6, Betrayal of Christ, 1508 (cf. Meder 71.5c; Hollstein VII.9.5; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 47c), 116 x 72 mm.;

p. 8, Christ before Caiaphas, 1512 (cf. Meder 6b; Hollstein VII.9.6; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 48a), 118 x 72 mm.;

p. 10, Christ before Pilate, 1512 (cf. Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 49b), 116 x 72 mm.;

p. 12, Flagellation, 1512 (cf. Meder 72.8c; Hollstein VII.10.8; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 50c), 115 x 72 mm.;

p. 14, Christ Crowned with Thorns, 1512 (cf. Meder 9; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 51), 115 x 72 mm.;

p. 16, Ecce Homo, 1512 (cf. Meder 72.10.b-c; Hollstein VII.11.10; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 52c), 115 x 72 mm.;

p. 18, Pilate Washing his Hands, 1512 (cf. Meder 11; Hollstein VII.12.11; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 53a), 115 x 73 mm.;

p. 20, Bearing of the Cross, 1512 (cf. Koehler 55; Hollstein VII.12.12; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 54a), 116 x 73 mm.;

p. 22, Crucifixion, 1511 (cf. Koehler 56; Meder 73.13b; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 55b), 116 x 72 mm.;

p. 24, Lamentation over Christ, 1507 (cf. Koehler 57; Hollstein VII.13.14; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 56b), 116 x 69 mm.;

p. 26, Entombment, 1512 (cf. Koehler 58; Hollstein VII.14.15; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 57b), 115 x 72 mm.;

p. 28, Christ in Limbo (the Harrowing of Hell), 1512 (cf. Meder 73.16d; Hollstein VII.14.16; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 58c), 115 x 73 mm.;

p. 30, Resurrection, 1512 (cf. Koehler 60; Hollstein VII.15.17; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 59c), 116 x 72 mm.;

p. 32, Man of Sorrows by the Column, 1509 (cf. Koehler 46; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 45), 116 x 72 mm.;

p. 34, St. Peter and St. John Healing the Lame Man, 1513 (cf. Koehler 61; Hollstein VII.15.18; Schoch, Mende, and Scherbaum 60b), 115 x 73 mm.;

In the late sixteenth century, over fifty years after the Dürer’s death, there was a renewed interest in the artist and his work – a period subsequently known as the “Dürer Renaissance.” As the supply of paintings and drawings was necessarily limited, demand was partially satisfied by the creation of hand-colored engravings and woodcuts, approximating the appearance of painted miniatures. In the first half of the sixteenth century there were two distinct professional groups, the Illuministen, painters of miniatures and illuminated manuscripts, and the Briefmaler (literally: “letter painters”), who created coats of arms, playing cards, and other illustrated documents. However, due to the rise of the printed book, the demand for illuminated manuscripts diminished, and the two professions – although still termed separately – gradually began to merge.

The Prayer Book includes a complete set of sixteen engravings from Albrecht Dürer’s Engraved Passion along with Dürer’s Virgin and Child Seated by a Tree (1513) as prologue, all hand-colored in transparent washes and heightened with gouache, gold, and silver. All the engravings are trimmed close to, or just inside, the plate mark. Gilt red micro-borders painted on paper are pasted over the edges and outlined in purple ink. A section of this border lost at the lower edge on p. 4 reveals the edge of the paper with the engraving of Christ on the Mount of Olives. These pasted-in borders have the effect of “camouflaging the transition from paper to animal skin,” as Susan Dackerman notes in her discussion of the heavy borders around a set of colored woodcuts from Dürer’s Small Passion pasted to parchment leaves now in the George Khuner Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (inv. 1975.653.112; Dackerman 2002, cat. 40, pp. 200-203).

In a recent publication, Illuminated Prints 1480-1600 including Three Extraordinary Manuscripts 1593-1597 (London, Emanuel von Baeyer, 2019), the authors identify seven Prayer Books, most of them previously unknown and now attributed to Hieronymus Oertel. These include the most lavishly illustrated Prayer Book, Andechtige Gebetlein mit schönen, kunstreichen Figuren, exhibited in Amsterdam and published in 2015 (T. Goedings, Afsetters en Meesterafsetters, de kunst van het kleuren, Amsterdam/ Nijmegen, 2015).  Now in a private collection, this book is illustrated with 88 tipped in colored prints.  Three of these are in the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wölfenbuttel (Cod. Guelf 55.3.b Aug. 40, 55.3.a Aug. 40, and 54.10 Aug. 40).  Four, including the ex-Amsterdam one, are in private collections and were published in 2019. Two additional copies (not published in 2019) have been handled by Les Enluminures, the present copy and one now in a private collection and closest to both Wölfenbuttel, Cod. Guelf 54.10 Aug. 40 and to EvB no. 9.

From the isolation of this group of Prayer Books emerge a series of interesting facts.  First, the maker (scribe, illuminator, and presumably publisher) was Hieronymus Oertel.  We know this because he signed the three copies in Wölfenbuttel (Cod. Guelf 55.3.a Aug. 40): [translation] “The life and history of Jesus Christ … composed in beautiful artistic plates together with very profitable prayers for pious Christians and described with utmost diligence by Hieronymus Oertel from Augsburg Anno 1590. With a Preface.” A humanist Protestant, Oertel was born in Augsburg and entered the imperial court of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I in 1558 when he was fifteen years old.  He worked for three emperors until 1578, when banished from Vienna he relocated in Nuremberg, becoming a Schreibmeister.  He was noted in his day as an artist-scribe and is mentioned toward the end of his life between 1606 and 1614 in the Nuremberg archives as a Kunstmaler.  Second, Oertel published volumes for the aristocratic patrons in the imperial circle, because three of the extant manuscripts, those in Wölfenbuttel, remain in their original bindings and come from Duke August (1579-1666) personal collection.  Third, Oertel’s illuminated work can be circumscribed by the fact that six of the Prayer Books are dated:  1583, 1590, 1593, 1595, 1597, and 1605. The present volume does not bear a date and it is no longer in its original binding.

It remains to be determined how several other hybrid manuscripts with prints from the original Engraved Passion relate to this relatively coherent group.  These include the so-called Prayer Book of Frederick the Wise, bound between 1512 and 1525 with fifteen prints (Princeton University, inv. no. x1934-369), and a Prayer Book written in 1578 and also bound with plates from Dürer’s Engraved Passion (Liege, Univ. Bib., MS 1096).

The production of two other artists needs to be considered in a discussion of Hieronymus Oertel’s work:  that of the Mack family (Georg Mack the Elder, active c. 1556-1601, and his son active beginning 1582) of Nuremberg and that of Dominicus Rottenhammer (active Augsburg c. 1594-1640).  The most celebrated group by the former artist is a dispersed set of colored Dürer engravings with decorated borders on parchment signed by Georg Mack the Elder (active c. 1556-1601). The coloring of the engravings is sparing in places. Christ’s wounds in the engraving with the Man of Sorrows by the Column on p. 32, for example, are only slightly colored in red to indicate blood, but are applied with subtle washes of gray around the wounds on his hands. However, a deep burgundy red is used to color the stream of blood flowing from Christ's side in this same print. Georg Mack's decisions as an artist – to color or leave unaltered – have been studied by Walter Melion, who notes the concordance of the prayers in the hybrid manuscript and Mack's adherence to what he calls “Lutheran dogmatics.” The dark red blood in the Man of Sorrows by the Column is echoed in the facing prayer that “calls upon Jesus, the fountain of life, to justify the parched hearts of the faithful by sprinkling them with the blood flowing from his five wounds like heavenly aqua vitae” (p. 33; see Melion 2009, p. 231). The burgundy colored blood only appears to flow from Christ's side, seemingly at odds with the text of the prayer. This attentive approach to color is in keeping with Georg Mack's works. Hans Mack's 1585 coloring of this same engraving of the Man of Sorrows by the Column, however, adds red pigment over Christ's wounds and every part of his body, and also the column (Dublin, Beatty Library, inv. WEP 112). The varying palettes of Mack, Oertel, and Rottenhammer, along with the textual and pictorial content of volumes associated with them, still merits a full study.

Literature

For comparisons, see:

As-Vijvers, Anne. M.W. Tuliba Collection: Catalogue of Manuscripts and Miniatures from the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Hilversum, 2014.

Bartrum, Giulia, with G. Grass, J.L. Koerner, and U. Kuhlemann. Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy: The Graphic Work of a Renaissance Artist, Princeton, NJ, and London, 2002 [exhibition catalogue].

Bartsch, Adam von. Illustrated Bartsch, Sixteenth-Century German Artists, Albrecht Dürer, ed. Walter L. Strauss, New York, 1981.

Bubenik, Andrea. Reframing Albrecht Dürer: The Appropriation of Art, 1528–1700, London and New York, 2013.

Dackerman, Susan. Painted Prints: The Revelation of Color in Northern Renaissance and Baroque Engravings, Etchings, and Woodcuts, Baltimore, 2002, esp. cat. 46 [exhibition catalogue].

Gmelin, Hans Georg. “Illuminierte Druckgraphik um 1600: Ein Phänomen der ‘Dürerrenaissance?’” Städel Jahrbuch 9 (1983), pp. 183-204.

Goedings, T. Afsetters en Meesterafsetters, de kunst van het kleuren, Amsterdam/ Nijmegen, 2015. 

Haas, Angela. “Two Devotional Manuals by Albrecht Dürer,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 63, no. 2 (2000), pp. 169-230.

Hollstein, F.W.H. German engravings, etchings, and woodcuts, ca. 1400-1700, vol. 7, Dürer, ed. K.G. Boon and R.W. Scheller, Amsterdam, 1962.

Illuminated Prints 1480-1600 including Three Extraordinary Manuscripts 1593-1597.  London, Emanuel von Baeyer, 2019.

Meder, J. Dürer-Katalog: ein Handbuch über Albrecht Dürers Stiche, Radierungen, Holzschnitte, deren Zustände, Ausgaben und Wasserzeichen, New York, 1971.

Melion. W. “'Nor my praise to graven images': Divine Artifice and the Heart's Idols in Georg Mack the Elder's Painted Print of The Trinity.” In The Idol in the Age of Art: Objects, Devotions and the Early Modern World, ed. M. W. Cole and R. Zorach, Farnham and Burlington, 2009, pp. 215-237.

Panofsky, Erwin. The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer, Princeton, NJ, 1995 [1955].

Schoch, Reiner, Matthias Mende, and Anna Scherbaum, eds. Albrecht Durer. Das Druckgraphishe Werk, Vol. 1, Munich, London, New York, 2001.

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